In this work, we valorized two wastes of plant origin in activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation, with a view to their use for the elimination of industrial dyes and artisanal dyeing simulated by methylene blue and iodine in the water. These are coconut shells (Coco nucifera) and teak wood chips (Tectona grandis). For the preparation of activated carbon based on coconut residues, the chemical activation was carried out by citric acid extracts of lemon juice (Citrus aurantiifolia) and then compared to that carried out with phosphoric acid and hydroxide of potassium. For the preparation of activated carbon from the teak residue, the activating agent used is potassium hydroxide. The results obtained show that activated carbon based on the coconut are microporous and mesoporous with an iodine number between 338.9 and 487.9 mg/g, a methylene blue number between 369.2 and 447.2 mg/g and a more pronounced post-treatment residual acidity for phosphoric acid than with lemon juice. The test conditions (the impregnation ratio, the duration, and the carbonization temperature) made it possible to prepare six activated carbons from the teak residue. The carbonization time does not have a significant effect on the adsorption efficiency although it does have a considerable effect on the carbonization efficiency. The adsorption kinetics of methylene blue on these materials is second order and the adsorption isotherm is more of the Langmuir type than that of the Freundlich model; this isotherm is characteristic of a wide distribution of microporosity and a well-developed mesoporosity. These activated carbons can therefore be used in the treatment of wastewater, in particular for the removal of industrial dyes and artisanal dyeing.
Degila HW, Azon NB, Adounkpe JG, Akowanou AVO, Aina MP. Mercury: emission sources, toxicity, contamination of the aquatic environment and particularity of Benin. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Science. 2019. DOI: 10.4314/ijbcs.v13i7.36.
Agassounon DTM, Ayi-Fanou L, Lozes E, Fadonougbo R, Anago GDL, Agbangla C, et al. Health impacts related to the use of well water, sanitation and development in Gbôdjê in the district of Godomey in Benin. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Science. 2012. DOI: 10.4314/ijbcs.v6i2.4.
Azokpota E, Youssao AKA, Avocefohoun A, Alassane AK, Adandedjan C, Mama D. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters, traditional wells and cisterns waters consumed in the town halls of Agbangnizoun and Za-kpota in South Benign. Pollution Elixir, 2022; 163(2022): 56064-56020.
Azokpota E, Youssao AKA, Avocefohoun A, Alassane MAK, Adandedjan C, Ahyi V, et al. Levels of heavy metals contamination (As, Cd, Hg, Pb) in some human consumption water sources in Agbangnizoun and Za-Kpota town halls southern Benin. International Journal of Chemistry, 2022; 14(1). DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v14n1p41.
Dedjiho C, Mama D, Tomètin L, Nougbodé I, Chouti W, Sohounhle D, et al. Evaluation of the physico-chemical quality of certain wastewater tributaries of Lake Ahémé in Benin. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 2013; 70: 5608-5616. ISSN 1997-5902.
Marsily G, Abarca-del-Rio R, Cazenave A, Ribstein P. Will we soon run out of water? Meteorology, 2018; (39-49). DOI: 10.4267/2042/67429.
Sancey B. Development of bio-adsorption to decontaminate industrial waste effluents: chemical abatement and environmental gain. Thesis, University of Franche-Comté; 2011.
Gonzalez-Serrano E, Corderoa T, Rodriguez-Mirasola J, Cotorueloa L, Rodriguez JJ. Removal of water pollutants with activated carbons prepared from H3PO4 activation of lignin from kraft black liquors. Water Research, 2004; 38: 3043–3050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.04.048.
Namasiyayam C, Kadirvelu K. Uptake of mercury (II) from wastewater by activated carbon from an unwanted agricultural solid by-product. Coirpith. Carbon, 1998; 37: 79-84.
Yahya MA, Al-Qodah Z, Zanariah Ngah CCW. Agricultural bio-waste materials as potential sustainable precursors used for activated carbon production: A review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.02.051.
Alslaibi TM, Abustan I, Ahmad MA, Foul AA. A review: Production of activated carbon from agricultural byproducts via conventional and microwave heating. Society of Chemical Industry, 2013. DOI: 10.1002/jctb.04028.
Hayashi J, Kazehaya A, Muroyama K, Watkinson AP. Preparation of activated carbon from Lignin by Chemical activation. Carbon, 2000; 38: 1873-1878.
Balogoun CK, Bawa ML, OSSENI S, Aina M, Preparation of chemically activated carbons with phosphoric acid based on coconut shell. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2015. DOI: 10.4314/ijbcs.v9i1.48.
Pedicini R, Maisano S, Chiodo V, Conte G, Policicchio AA, Agostino R. Posidonia Oceanica and wood chips activated carbon as interesting materials for hydrogen storage, Elsevier; 2020.
ASTM D4607-94. Standard Test Method for Determination of Iodine Number of Activated Carbon. ASTM International 100, Barr Harbor Drive: United States; 2006.
Kouadio DL, Diarra M, Tra D, Akesse PVD, Soro BD, Aboua KN, et al. Adsorption of Yellow 11 textile dye on activated carbon from the peanut shell. International Journal of innovation and applied studies, 2019; 26 (4 Jul):1280-1292. ISSN 2028-9324.
Karim AB, Mounir B, Hachkar M, Bakasse M, Yaacoubi, A. Elimination of the basic dye “Methylene blue” in aqueous solution by Safi clay. Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science, 2010; 23(4): 375–388. DOI: 10.7202/045099ar.
Gbamele KS, Atheba GP, Dongui BK, Drogui P, Robert D, Kra OD, et al. Contribution to the study of four activated carbons from walnut shells coconut. Africa Science, 2016; 12(5): 229-245.
Khalfoui A. Experimental study of the elimination of organic and inorganic pollutants by adsorption on natural materials: Application to orange and banana peels, Phd thesis, Constantine. 2012.
Yadav D, Kapur M, Kumar P, Mondial MK. Adsorptive removal of phosphate from aqueous solution using rice husk and fruit juice residue. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2015; 94: 402-409. DOI: 10.1016/j.psep.2014.09.005.
Avom J, Mbadcam KJ, Babale BD, Ngono AI, Patrick G. Adsorption of iodine by activated carbons from palm bunch stalks. French-language review of industrial ecology, 2002; 28. Retrieved from: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03178333/document.
Maazou DBS, Hima HI, Malam Alma MM, Adamou Z, Natatou I. Elimination of chromium by activated carbon developed and characterized from the kernel shell of Balanites Aegyptiaca. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Science, 2017: 3050-3065. DOI: 10.4314/ijbcs.v11i6.39.
El Maguana Y, Elhadiri N, Bouchdoug M, Benchanaa M. Study of the influence of some factors on the preparation of activated carbon from walnut cake using the fractional factorial design. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2018: 1093-1099. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2018.01.023.
Onat MD, Lungu CT. Preparation of industrial sisal fiber waste derived activated carbon by chemical activation and effects of carbonization parameters on surface characteristics. Industrial Crops and Products, 2017; 95: 583-590. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.11.016.
Sirimuangjinda A, Hemra K, Atong D, Pechyen C. Comparison on pore development of activatedcarbon produced from scrap tire by potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide for active packaging materials. Key Engineering Materials, 2013; 545: 129-133. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.545.129.
Khezami L, Chetouani A, Taouk B, Capart R. Production and characterization of activated carbon from wood components in powder: Cellulose, lignin, xylan. 2005 Powder technology, pp 48-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2005.05.009.
Fierro V, Torné-Fernandez V, Celzard A. Kraft lignin as a precursor for microporous activated carbons prepared by impregnation with ortho-phosphoric acid: synthesis and structural characterisation. Microporous And Mesoporous Materials, 2006: 243-250. DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2006.01.013.
Ibanez EF. Study of carbonization and activation of hard and soft plant precursors. University of Neuchatel, Phd thesis. 2002.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.