Assessment of the Adsorption Potential of Synthesized Chitosan-Pyrrole-2-Carboxaldehyde Schiff Base for Cr²⁺ and Pb²⁺ Ions from Dumpsite Leachate


Complexation and adsorption have shown to be reliable and economical alternative to removing pollutants such as heavy metals from wastewater in order to eliminate or reduce the hazards associated with them. Adsorption by naturally occurring materials is one of the most effective and low-cost methods of doing this. In this study, the removal efficiency (%) of chromium (II) ion, Cr2+and lead (II) ion, Pb2+ by chitosan-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde Schiff base (CPCSB) from wastewater was investigated through batch experiment studies. The results of this study showed that the removal efficiency of Cr2+ ion and Pb2+ ion from wastewater by the Schiff base increases with an increase in the adsorbent contact time, and adsorbent dosage until equilibrium is reached. The optimum conditions for maximum adsorption were: time 100 and 80 mins for Cr2+ and Pb2+ ions respectively with 96.69% and 97.95%, pH for Cr2+ ion was 8 with a removal efficiency of 77.45% while for Pb2+ ion, the pH was 6 with a removal efficiency of 97.85%. The highest removal efficiency of 97.43% and 95.79% for Cr2+ and Pb2+ ions respectively was recorded when the dosage was 2.0 g. The results obtained from this study indicated that chitosan-pyrrole Schiff base is a good adsorbent of these heavy metals. To interpret the results, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied.

  1. Abdelwahab O, Amin NK, El-Ashtoukhy ESZ. Removal of zinc ions from aqueous solution using a cation exchange resin. Chem Eng Res Des, 2013; 91(1):165–173. doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2012.07. 005.  |   Google Scholar
  2. Seyedmohammadi J, Motavassel M, Maddahi MH, Nikmanesh S. Application of nano chitosan and chitosan particles for adsorption of Zn(II) ions pollutant from aqueous solution to protect the environment. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2016; 2:165-176.  |   Google Scholar
  3. Zubair M, Arshad M, Ullah A. Chitosan-based materials for water and wastewater treatment. In Handbook of Chitin and Chitosan. Volume 3: Chitin and Chitosan-based Polymer Materials for Various Applications. 2020.  |   Google Scholar
  4. Wuana RA, Okieimen FE. Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils: A Review of Chemistry, Risks and Best Available Strategies for Remediation. International Scholarly Research Network, Ecology, 2011; 2011: 1-20. doi:10.5402/2011/402647.  |   Google Scholar
  5. Ali H, Khan E, Ilahi I. Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology of Hazardous Heavy Metals: Environmental Persistence, Toxicity, and Bioaccumulation. Journal of Chemistry, 2019; 2019: 1-14.  |   Google Scholar
  6. Luter L, Terngu AJ, Attah S. Heavy Metals in Soils of auto-mechanic shops and refuse dumpsites in Makurdi Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, 2011; 15(1): 207-210.  |   Google Scholar
  7. Nomanbhay SM, Palanisamy K. Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using chitosan-coated oil palm shell charcoal. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 2005; 8(1): 45-53.  |   Google Scholar
  8. Cristian P, Violeta P, Ralusa I. Removal of zinc ions from model wastewater system using biopolymer membranes with fumed silica. J Water Process Eng, 2015; 8:1–10. doi:10.1016/j.jwpe. 2015.08.001.  |   Google Scholar
  9. Amrollahi M, Ghaneian MT, Tabatabaee M, Ehrampoush MH. Highly Efficient Adsorbent for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions Modified by a Novel Schiff Base Ligand. J Nanostruct, 2018; 8(4): 374-382. DOI: 10.22052/JNS.2018.04.007.  |   Google Scholar
  10. Jimoh I, Jimoh A. The Experimental Study of Adsorption of Ni(II) from Aqueous Solution using Chelating Schiff Base Derived from 2-aminobenzoic acid and benzoin. Eurasian Research Bulletin, 2021; 2: 56-63.  |   Google Scholar
  11. Okechukwu AC, Omoraka SU, Bello SO, Amaeze RN, Joseph OT, Okoro EK. Schiff Bases and their Ability to Remove Heavy Metals. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry 2022; 15(7): 7-14.  |   Google Scholar
  12. Agbozu IE, Emoruwa FO. Batch Adsorption of Heavy Metals (Cu, Pb, Fe, Cr, and Cd) from aqueous Solutions using Coconut Husk. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2014; 8(4): 239-246.  |   Google Scholar
  13. Masindi V, Muedi KL. Environmental Contamination by Heavy Metals in Heavy Metals. In H. E. M. Saleh & R. F. Aglan (Eds). IntechOpen, Rijeka; 2018 (Chapter 7).  |   Google Scholar
  14. Crini G. Recent Developments in Polysaccharide–Base Materials Used as Adsorbents in Wastewater Treatment. Progress in Polymer Science, 2005; 30: 38-70.  |   Google Scholar
  15. Ning RY. Arsenic removed by reverse osmosis. Desalination 2002; 143: 237-241.  |   Google Scholar
  16. Chen X, Chen G, Yue PL. Novel electrode system for electroflotation of wastewater. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002; 36: 778-783.  |   Google Scholar
  17. Von GU. Part I Oxidation Kinetics and product formation. Water Res, 2003; 37: 1443-1467.  |   Google Scholar
  18. Ciesielski W, Lii CY, Yen MT, Tomasik P. Internation of starch with the salt of metals from the transition groups. Carbohydrate Polymer, 2003; 51: 47-56.  |   Google Scholar
  19. Bisht R, Agarwal M, Singh K. Methodologies for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater: an overview. Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, 2017; 18(2): 124-142.  |   Google Scholar
  20. Ince M, Ince OK. Application of response surface methodological approach to optimize removal of Cr ions from industrial wastewater. Atomic Spectroscopy, 2019; 40(3): 91-97.  |   Google Scholar
  21. Volesky B. Detoxification of metal–bearing effluents: biosorption for the next century. Hydrometallurgy, 2001; 59: 203-216.  |   Google Scholar
  22. Mudasir A, Shakeel A, Babu Lal S, Saiqa I. Adsorption of heavy metal ions: Role of chitosan and cellulose for water treatment. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 2015; 2:6  |   Google Scholar
  23. Nechita P. Applications of Chitosan in Wastewater Treatment. In Biological Activities and Applications of Marine Polysaccharides. IntechOpen, 2017: 209-228. Available on:  |   Google Scholar
  24. Yalcinkaya S, Demetgul C, Timur M, Colak N. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of polypyrrole/chitosan composite on a platinum electrode: its electrochemical and thermal behaviors. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2010; 79(4): 908-913.  |   Google Scholar
  25. Nainggolan I, Shantini D, Nasution TI, Derman MN. Role of metals content in spinach in enhancing the conductivity and optical band gap of chitosan films. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2015: 1-8 Article ID 702815.  |   Google Scholar
  26. Shantini D, Nainggolan I, Nasution TI, Derman MN, Mustaffa R, Abd Wahab NZ. Hexanal Gas Detection Using Chitosan Biopolymer as Sensing Material at Room Temperature. Journal of Sensors, 2016: 1-7.  |   Google Scholar
  27. Divya KR, Jisha MS. Chitosan Nanoparticles Preparation and Applications. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 2017; 16: 101-112.  |   Google Scholar
  28. Arh-Hwang C, Sheng-Chang L, Chia-Yuan C, Chia-Yun C. Comparative adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solution on the crosslinked chitosan with epichlorohydrin. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008; 154: 184-191.  |   Google Scholar
  29. Adewuyi S, Bisiriyu IO, Akinremi CA, Amolegbe SA. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Surface and Catalytic Reactivity of Chitosan Supported Co(II) and Its Zerovalentcobalt Nanobiocomposite. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 2017; 27(1): 114-121.  |   Google Scholar
  30. Annaduzzaman M. (2015). Chitosan Biopolymer as an Adsorbent for Drinking Water Treatment. Investigation on arsenic and uranium. TRITA-LWR LIC; 2015:02.  |   Google Scholar
  31. Dey SC, Al-Amin M, Rashid TU, Sultan MZ, Ashaduzzaman M, Sarker M, Shamsuddin SM. Preparation, Characterization, and Performance Evaluation of Chitosan as an Adsorbent for Remazol Red. International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Technology, 2016; 2(2): 52-62.  |   Google Scholar
  32. Karunakaran K, Thamilarasu P. Removal of Fe(III) from Aqueous Solutions Using Ricinus Communis Seed Shell and Polypyrrole Coated Ricinus Communis Seed Shell Activated Carbons. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 2010; 2(1): 26-35.  |   Google Scholar
  33. Jiao TF, Zhou J, Zhou JX, Gao L, Xing Y, Li X. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan–based Schiff Base Compounds with Aromatic Substituent Groups. Iranian Polymer Journal, 2011; 20(2): 123-136.  |   Google Scholar
  34. Anan NA, Hassan SM, Saad EM, Butler IS, Mostafa SI. Preparation, characterization, and pH-metric measurements of 4-hydrosalicylidenechitosan Schiff-base complexes of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ru(III), Rh(III), Pd(II), and Au(III). Carbohydrate Research, 2011; 346: 775-793.  |   Google Scholar
  35. Amuda OS, Adelowo FE, Ologunde MO. Kinetics and equilibrium studies of adsorption of chromium(VI) ion from industrial wastewater using chrysophyllumalbidum (Sapotaceae) seed shells. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2009; 68: 184-192.  |   Google Scholar
  36. Onundi YB, Mamun AA, Al Khatib MF, Al Saadi MA, Suleyman AM. Heavy metals removal from synthetic wastewater by a novel nano-size composite adsorbent. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 2011; 8(4): 799- 806.  |   Google Scholar
  37. Sugashini S, Gopalakrishnan S. Studies on the performance of protonated cross-linked chitosan beads (PCCB) for chromium removal. Res J. Chem. Sci., 2012; 2(6): 55-59  |   Google Scholar
  38. Okoya AA, Akinyele AB, Ofoezie IE, Amuda OS, Alayande OS, Makinde OW. Adsorption in Heavy Metals Ions onto Chitosan Grafted Cocoa Husk Char. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2014; 8(10): 147-161.  |   Google Scholar
  39. Ahmed MO, Shrpip A, Mansor M. Synthesis and Characterization of New Schiff Base/Thiol-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica: An Efficient Sorbent for the Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. Processes, 2020; 8: 246-267. DOI:10.3390/pr8020246.  |   Google Scholar
  40. Abdolmaleki AY, Eisazadeh H, Taghipour Z, Tanzifi M. Effect of various Agents on Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Solution using Polypyrrole as an Adsorbent. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 2012;7(5): 540-551.  |   Google Scholar
  41. Tan IAW, Ahmad AL, Hameed BH. Adsorption of Basic Dye Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Oil Palm Shell: Batch and Fixed Bed Studies. Desalination, 2008; 225: 13-28.  |   Google Scholar

How to Cite

Olugbemi, S. A., Amoniyan, O. A., & Salami, A. A. (2023). Assessment of the Adsorption Potential of Synthesized Chitosan-Pyrrole-2-Carboxaldehyde Schiff Base for Cr²⁺ and Pb²⁺ Ions from Dumpsite Leachate. European Journal of Advanced Chemistry Research, 4(3), 30–39.

Search Panel

 Samuel Adeolu Olugbemi
 Google Scholar |   EJCHEM Journal

 Oluwasegun Amos Amoniyan
 Google Scholar |   EJCHEM Journal

 Azeez Amoo Salami
 Google Scholar |   EJCHEM Journal